Cancer Cell Cycle, Carcinogenesis & Cancer Mutagenesis

Cancer cells are the cells that divide continuously which flood the blood with abnormal cells and forms solid tumours. Cell division is a normal utilised by the body for growth and repair. A parent cell divides to form 2 daughter cells which are used to build a new tissue or to replace dead cells as a result of damage or ageing. Cancer Cells continue to produce copies where the healthy cells stop dividing as there is a no longer need for more daughter cells. Cancer Cells have capability of spreading from one part of the body to another in a process known as metastasis.

Carcinogenesis is also called as Tumorigenesis or Oncogenesis. It is the formation of cancer where the normal cells are transformed into the Cancer Cells. The process is characterized by changes in the abnormal cell division, cellular, genetic, and epigenetic levels. Cell division is a physiological procedure that occurs in all tissues. Normally the balance between proliferation and automatic cell death, in the form of Apoptosis, is maintained to ensure the consistency of tissues and organs.

Mutagenesis is a method by which the genetic information of an organism is altered, resulting in a mutation. DNA may be altered either naturally or artificially by using physical, chemical and biological agents which results in mutations. Mutagen generally changes the genetic material of DNA of an organism and increases the occurrence of mutation and increased level of Mutations cause Cancer. Some of the chemicals become mutagenic only through cellular processes and all the mutations are not caused by mutagens: “Spontaneous Mutations” occur due to hydrolysis, errors in DNA replication, repair and recombination.

  • Development of drugs that target multiple, distinct points in the cell cycle
  • Accompanying side effects caused by conventional chemotherapeutic agents
  • Biochemical mechanisms in relation to the cancer development
  • Mutations in the genes that encode cell cycle regulator proteins

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